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The period in the relations between the US and the Soviet Union from the 1940s to the late1980s, known for its tension and hostility, became known in history as the Cold War. The beginning of the Cold War dates back to the Second World War. The name “Cold War” was given to this period because although the tensions were incredibly high, the two countries never resorted to an active war, most likely out of fear of nuclear escalation. A major crisis in the relationship was the 1962 Cuban missile crisis, when a US plane spotted numerous intermediate ballistic records from the Soviet Union on Cuba. The missiles were later taken back by the Soviet Union after the United States gave their promise not to invade Cuba. This Cold War essay touches on the reasons for the conflict and how it went on.
Historians still cannot agree who is to blame for the conflict. Russian historians believe that Churchill and Truman are the ones responsible for starting the conflict aimed at destroying the US. The West initially thought that the Soviet Union and Stalin were entirely at fault for aggressively building the Soviet empire. Later many historians changed their mind and put the blame on the US for being oblivious to the damage sustained by the Soviet Union from the World War II. A major part of historians believe both parties are at fault.
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Recently the most popular belief is that the Cold War was a result of a clash between two completely different philosophies, Communism and Capitalism. The Soviet Union was determined to spread the communist ideology around the globe, which was not welcomed by democracy-oriented United States. Both of the countries were powerful nations with a lot of military potential, which is why both the US and the Soviet Union were afraid of a major attack. Apart from political reasons for the conflict, the rivalry was also largely based on economic reasons – mainly, America’s desire to spread free trade globally and the Soviet Union’s intent to close off its market from the rest of the world. The conflict was also based on a power rivalry, as two of the world’s most powerful countries fought for influence across the globe.
The conflict between the two countries went on for four decades, starting in the mid-1940s and ending with the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, with years of conciliatory moves being taken and arms reduction pacts being signed by both countries.
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