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Progress and development are inherent features of human civilization. During the Middle Ages the progress was slow, then Renaissance witnessed the bloom of human intelligence, and the Enlightenment put human reason and thinking ability on the pedestal as a lighthouse in the darkness of ignorance and superstitions. However, only one scientific and technological breakthrough was given the loud name of revolution. It was the Industrial Revolution in the England of the late 17th century. Later the achievements of this Revolution traveled to America, and made these two regions the leaders in the economic development and production for many years to come.
Positive effects of the industrial revolution may be evaluated from different points of view; however, its essence was the shift from slow hand production of goods to machine production that was hundreds times faster and allowed production of large bulks of goods at low cost. Industry as such was born, and this birth manifested the beginning of the era of multiple and radical changes in all spheres of human lives across the world. In a nutshell, the Industrial Revolution was about steam engines, electricity in its wide sense, peace, financial development and inventions, above all.
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Improvement of steam engine allowed creation of machines that produced various goods, from textile to metal products, in large amounts and in swift mode. Such production mode required large premises and supply of workforce to run and maintain machines. More plants and factories demanded more workers of various skills and education. Regularly produced large amounts of goods needed efficient transportation to be delivered to customers across the wide lands of America and abroad. Besides, production facilities meant that people should be able to buy goods, so their buying power should be improved, otherwise the mass production will be a waste of time. Large factories with affiliates across the country needed reliable means of fast communication to coordinate activities and make decisions. Obviously, these multiplying needs gave rise to development of railway and water transportation, to designing and introduction of telegraph and telephone, to creation of reliable financial system, founding of universities and technical schools and generally boosted the social development of country towards more diverse pattern rich with opportunities.
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